Two-Factor Authentication: All techniques used to strengthen typical Username/password login session (e.g. single factor authentication) by adding a second security challenge.
Two-factor authentication (also known as 2FA or 2-Step Verification) is a method of confirming a user's claimed identity by utilizing a combination of two different components. These components may be something that the user knows, something that the user possesses or something that is inseparable from the user. A good example from everyday life is the withdrawing of money from a cash machine. Only the correct combination of a bank card (something that the user possesses) and a PIN (personal identification number, something that the user knows) allows the transaction to be carried out. 2FA is ineffective against modern threats, like ATM skimming, phishing, and malware etc. Two-factor authentication is a type of multi-factor authentication.
3FF (3rd Form Factor) is a very small SIM card, also known as micro-SIM, for use in small mobile device.
The micro-SIM (or 3FF) card has the same thickness and contact arrangements, but reduced length and width. The micro-SIM was developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) along with SCP, 3GPP (UTRAN/GERAN), 3GPP2 (CDMA2000), ARIB, GSM Association (GSMA SCaG and GSMNA), GlobalPlatform, Liberty Alliance, and the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) for the purpose of fitting into devices too small for a mini-SIM card. Micro-sim cards were introduced by various mobile service providers for the launch of the original iPad, and later for smartphones, from April 2010.
(Third Generation) The broadband telecommunications systems that combine high speed voice, data and multimedia.
3G (Third Generation), short form of third generation, is the third generation of mobile telecommunications technology. This is based on a set of standards used for mobile devices and mobile telecommunications use services and networks that comply with the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. 3G finds application in wireless voice telephony, mobile Internet access, fixed wireless Internet access, video calls and mobile TV.
3GPP (3G Partnership Project) is an industry group that aims to produce specifications for a 3G system based on GSM Networks.
The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration between groups of telecommunications associations, known as the Organizational Partners. The initial scope of 3GPP was to make a globally applicable third-generation (3G) mobile phone system specification based on evolved Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) specifications within the scope of the International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 project of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
4FF (4th Form Factor) is a very small SIM card, also known as nano-SIM, for use in small mobile device.
The nano-SIM (or 4FF) card was introduced on 11 October 2012, when mobile service providers began selling it in various countries. The nano-SIM measures 12.3 × 8.8 × 0.67 mm and reduces the previous format to the contact area while maintaining the existing contact arrangements. A small rim of isolating material is left around the contact area to avoid short circuits with the socket. The 0.67 mm thickness of the nano-SIM is about 12% less than the 0.76 mm of its predecessor. 4FF can be put into adapters for use with devices taking 2FF or 3FF SIMs; many phone companies however do not recommend using these adapters.
4G (fourth generation) is a comprehensive, secure all-IP based mobile broadband solution to smartphones, tablets, laptop computers, wireless modems and other mobile devices.
4G, short for fourth generation, is the fourth generation of mobile telecommunications technology, succeeding 3G. A 4G system must provide capabilities defined by ITU in IMT Advanced. Potential and current applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, 3D television, and cloud computing.
Techniques and solutions to grant or deny access to a given user for a given digital service. Consumers are very familiar with Username/Password as a basic access control technique for popular web services such as web mails or eMerchants web sites. Security sensitive services such as Payment or eGov are often deploying more robust access control techniques, usually relying on Secure Elements, Smart Cards being one example.
Authentication and Key Agreement. The process by which the Authentication Centre (AuC) and UE exchange information by which they can each verify a secret key held by the other, and then calculate keys to be used for ciphering and integrity protection of data transmitted between the UE and the network. See 3GPP TS33.102 Section 6.3 and TS33.401 Section 6.1.
AKA stands for the Authentication and Key Agreement. It is a security protocol used in 3G networks. AKA is also used for one-time password generation mechanism for Digest access authentication. AKA is a challenge-response based mechanism that uses symmetric cryptography.
The basis for the 3G authentication mechanism, defined as a successor to CAVE-based Authentication, AKA provides procedures for mutual authentication of the Mobile Station (MS) and serving system. The successful execution of AKA results in the establishment of a security association (i.e., set of security data) between the MS and serving system that enables a set of security services to be provided.
Access Point Name. Identifies a Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) or Packet Data Network GateWay (P-GW). It includes an APN network identifier which defines the Packet Data Network (PDN) to which the UE requests connectivity, and may also include an APN operator identifier which defines in which Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) the P-GW or GGSN is located. See 3GPP TS23.003 Sections 9 and 188.8.131.52.
An Access Point Name (APN) is the name of a gateway between a GSM, GPRS, 3G or 4G mobile network and another computer network, frequently the public Internet.
A mobile device making a data connection must be configured with an APN to present to the carrier. The carrier will then examine this identifier to determine what type of network connection should be created, for example: which IP addresses should be assigned to the wireless device, which security methods should be used, and how or if, it should be connected to some private customer network.
More specifically, the APN identifies the packet data network (PDN) that a mobile data user wants to communicate with. In addition to identifying a PDN, an APN may also be used to define the type of service, (e.g. connection to Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) server, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)) that is provided by the PDN. APN is used in 3GPP data access networks, e.g. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), evolved packet core (EPC).
Broadcast Control CHannel. In LTE, it represents the logical channel carrying broadcast system information. See 3GPP TS36.321.
A broadcast control channel (BCCH) is a point to multipoint, unidirectional (downlink) channel used in the Um interface of the GSM cellular standard. The BCCH carries a repeating pattern of system information messages that describe the identity, configuration and available features of the base transceiver station (BTS). These messages also provide a list of absolute radio-frequency channel numbers (ARFCNs) used by neighboring BTSs. This message pattern is synchronized to the BTS frame clock. The minimum BCCH message set is system information messages 2–4, although other messages are normally present. The messages themselves are described in 3GPP Technical Specification 44.018.
Any GSM ARFCN that includes a BCCH is designated as a beacon channel and is required to transmit continuously at full power.
Bearer Control Mode. BCM can indicate mobile station only or mobile station / network. When the BCM is mobile station only, the mobile station requests any additional Packet Data Protocol (PDP) contexts for the PDP Address / Access Point Name (APN) pair. In the case of mobile station/network, both the mobile station and the Packet Data Network GateWay (P-GW) or Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) may request additional PDP contexts. See 3GPP TS29.060 Section 7.7.83.
Bit Error Rate. A measure of received signal quality, the proportion of received bits which is decoded erroneously.
The bit error rate (BER) is the number of bit errors per unit time. The bit error ratio (also BER) is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval. BER is a unitless performance measure, often expressed as a percentage.
A collection of data set so large and complex that they are difficult to process with traditional applications.
A collection of data set so large and complex that they are difficult to process with traditional applications. The term "big data" is commonly used to present new analytical applications leveraging on the power of very large amounts of data sets. A typical example is CRM (Customer Relationship Management) whereby the analysis of large amounts of past data can provide tools to improve sales forecasts, stocks management, marketing trends and customer behaviors. Data Analysis is foreseen as an opportunity to monetize such "big data" by improving business intelligence.
Human attributes that are unique to one given individual and can be digitalize to then be compared with a stored reference. The use of biometrics data such as finger prints can be used for security services such as access control, data encryption or digital signature The challenge of Biometry is to enroll then securely store the reference data for each individual. Smart Card solutions offer match-on-card applications, removing the need for an online verification via a central database.
Biometrics refers to metrics related to human characteristics. Biometrics authentication (or realistic authentication) is used in computer science as a form of identification and access control. It is also used to identify individuals in groups that are under surveillance. Biometric identifiers are the distinctive, measurable characteristics used to label and describe individuals. Biometric identifiers are often categorized as physiological versus behavioral characteristics. Physiological characteristics are related to the shape of the body. Examples include, but are not limited to fingerprint, palm veins, face recognition, DNA, palm print, hand geometry, iris recognition, retina and odour/scent. Behavioral characteristics are related to the pattern of behavior of a person, including but not limited to typing rhythm, gait, and voice. Some researchers have coined the term behaviometrics to describe the latter class of biometrics.
A short range wireless technology that simplifies communication and synchronization between the internet, devices and other computers.
A short range wireless technology that simplifies communication and synchronization between the internet, devices and other computers. Bluetooth is commonly used for consumers electronics devices such as, for example, headsets for cell phones or MP3 players. Bluetooth requires first the user to establish a pairing between two devices. Once this pairing is establish, a fast wireless data exchange between the two devices can happen.
Broadcast-Multicast Service Centre. The interface between external broad- cast/multicast content providers and the core network. See 3GPP TS23.246 Section 5.1.
Broadcast and Multicast Service (BCMCS) is an interface for providing broadcast and multicast services in 3GPP2 CDMA2000 mobile networks. BCMCS can be used to transfer light video and audio clips or other data to a large group of mobile subscribers in an efficient manner. To do so, BCMCS is a so-called point-to-multipoint service. This means that multiple users receive the same information using the same radio resources.
The act of controlling Travellers identities and Visas when entering a given country (Airports, Sea-ports or roads)
Border controls are measures taken by a country to monitor or regulate its borders. Border controls are put in place to control the movement of people, animals and goods into as well as out of a country. Specialized government agencies are usually created to perform border controls. Such agencies may perform various functions such as customs, immigration, security, quarantine, beside other functions. Official designations, jurisdictions and command structures of these agencies vary considerably.
A type of computer program designed to do automated tasks.
An Internet bot, also known as web robot, WWW robot or simply bot, is a software application that runs automated tasks (scripts) over the Internet. Typically, bots perform tasks that are both simple and structurally repetitive, at a much higher rate than would be possible for a human alone. The largest use of bots is in web spidering, in which an automated script fetches, analyzes and files information from web servers at many times the speed of a human. Given the exceptional speed with which bots can perform their relatively simple routines, bots may also be implemented where a response speed faster than that of humans is required.
Binary Phase Shift Keying modulation. A modulation scheme conveying one bit per symbol, whereby the values of the bit are represented by opposite phases of the carrier.
BPSK (also sometimes called PRK, phase reversal keying, or 2PSK) is the simplest form of phase shift keying (PSK). It uses two phases which are separated by 180° and so can also be termed 2-PSK. It does not particularly matter exactly where the constellation points are positioned, and in this figure they are shown on the real axis, at 0° and 180°. This modulation is the most robust of all the PSKs since it takes the highest level of noise or distortion to make the demodulator reach an incorrect decision. It is, however, only able to modulate at 1 bit/symbol (as seen in the figure) and so is unsuitable for high data-rate applications.
Base Station. The entity in a radio access network responsible for radio trans- mission and reception in one or more cells to and from the UE. In LTE the BS is known as the eNodeB.
The term base station is used in the context of mobile telephony, wireless computer networking and other wireless communications and in land surveying: in surveying it is a GPS receiver at a known position, while in wireless communications it is a transceiver connecting a number of other devices to one another and/or to a wider area. In mobile telephony it provides the connection between mobile phones and the wider telephone network. In a computer network it is a transceiver acting as a router for computers in the network, possibly connecting them to a local area network and/or the internet. In traditional wireless communications it can refer to the hub of a dispatch fleet such as a taxi or delivery fleet, the base of a TETRA network as used by government and emergency services or a CB shack.
Common Access Card: a US Department of Defense smart card issued as standard physical and network identification for military and other personnel.
The Common Access Card, also colloquially referred to as the CAC or CAC card, is a smart card about the size of a credit card. It is the standard identification for Active Duty United States Defense personnel, to include the Selected Reserve and National Guard, United States Department of Defense (DoD) civilian employees, United States Coast Guard (USCG) civilian employees and eligible DoD and USCG contractor personnel. It is also the principal card used to enable physical access to buildings and controlled spaces, and it provides access to defense computer networks and systems. It also serves as an identification card under the Geneva Conventions (esp. the Third Geneva Convention). The CAC satisfies two-factor authentication: something that belongs to the user, and something only known to the user. The CAC also satisfies the requirements for digital signature and data encryption technologies: authentication, integrity and non-repudiation.
Gemalto Telecom Card Admin tool is a tool to edit SIM & UICC cards. Card Admin provides all the necessary fundamentals to FULLY (Proprietary files, Proprietary commands etc.) administrate any 2G, 3G, LTE and CDMA card (Gemalto & Competition).
Code Division Multiple Access. A wireless communications technology that uses the spread spectrum communication to provide increased bandwidth.
Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies. CDMA is an example of multiple access, where several transmitters can send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. This allows several users to share a band of frequencies (see bandwidth). To permit this without undue interference between the users, CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code). CDMA is used as the access method in many mobile phone standards. IS-95, also called "cdmaOne", and its 3G evolution CDMA2000, are often simply referred to as "CDMA"', but UMTS, the 3G standard used by GSM carriers, also uses "wideband CDMA", or W-CDMA, as well as TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA, as its radio technologies.
Cell Global Identification. The globally unique identity of a cell in GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) or CDMA2000.
Cell Global Identity (CGI) is a standard identifier for mobile phones cells, providing means to geographically locate connected mobile phones. If a cell phone is connected to a GSM network then the position of that particular cell phone can be determined using CGI of the cell which is covering that cell phone. There is a series of related technologies that were developed based on CGI that enhances the location precision: Cell Global Identity with Timing Advance (CGI+TA), Enhanced CGI (E-CGI), Cell ID for WCDMA, Uplink Time Difference Of Arrival (U-TDOA) and Any Time Interrogation (ATI), and the high accuracy terminal based method Assisted Global Positioning System (A-GPS).
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. Used by the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) to validate the identity of users. See IETF RFC1994, www.ietf.org.
In computing, the Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) authenticates a user or network host to an authenticating entity. That entity may be, for example, an Internet service provider. CHAP is specified in RFC 1994.
CHAP provides protection against replay attacks by the peer through the use of an incrementally changing identifier and of a variable challenge-value. CHAP requires that both the client and server know the plaintext of the secret, although it is never sent over the network. Thus, CHAP provides better security as compared to Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) which is vulnerable for both these reasons. The MS-CHAP variant does not require either peer to know the plaintext and does not transmit it, but has been broken.
Computing by using servers, storage and applications that are accessed via the internet. Cloud Computing is the architecture of choice for popular applications such as Web Mail, Social Networks, collaborative applications such as Microsoft office 365 or Google Docs. The promesses of Cloud Computing are no data losses, no backup needed, no software license updates needed. Applications are executed from a web browser or an apps. The application itself and the user data are hosted in a Data Center. Cloud Computing is often seen as the alternative to client software where a license of a given software is installed and executed on the user's device.
Cloud computing, also known as on-the-line computing, is a kind of Internet-based computing that provides shared processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand. It is a model for enabling ubiquitous, on-demand access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications and services), which can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort. Cloud computing and storage solutions provide users and enterprises with various capabilities to store and process their data in third-party data centers. It relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economy of scale, similar to a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network.
A card that communicates by means of a radio frequency signal, eliminating the need for physical contact with a reader. Contactless communications includes several technologies aiming at performing short range data transfer between two communicating devices. Operational ranges can vary from 2cm to 10 to 15 meters. Contactless Cards used for Payment or Transport use very short range technolgy. Such card's silicon chip are powered by the proximity of the reader to establish the contactless communication in a secure manner.
A contactless smart card is a contactless 13.56-MHz credential whose dimensions are credit-card size. Its embedded integrated circuits can store and sometimes process data and communicate with a terminal via radio waves. There are two broad categories of contactless smart cards. Memory cards contain non-volatile memory storage components, and perhaps some specific security logic. Contactless smart cards do contain read-only RFID called CSN (Card Serial Number) or UID, and a re-writeable smart card microchip that can be transcribed via radio waves.
Cyclic Redundancy Check. An error detecting code appended to a block of data to be transmitted. The value of the CRC is calculated only from the block of data itself. The length of the CRC determines the number of errors which can be detected in the block of data on reception. A CRC is not able to correct errors or determine which bits are erroneous.
A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is an error-detecting code commonly used in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to raw data. Blocks of data entering these systems get a short check value attached, based on the remainder of a polynomial division of their contents. On retrieval, the calculation is repeated and, in the event the check values do not match, corrective action can be taken against data corruption.
Closed Subscriber Group. A set of subscribers who are permitted to access a particular cell to which access is restricted. See 3GPP TS25.367 and TS36.304.
A closed subscriber group (CSG) is a limited set of users with connectivity access to a femtocell. When a femtocell is configured in CSG mode, only those users included in the femtocell's access control list are allowed to use the femtocell resources. On the other hand, a femtocell can be also configured in Open Access mode, in which any user is allowed access to the femtocell.
A closed access femto will accept LAU (Location Area Update) only from a subscriber who is in the ACL (Access Control List) of the femto, the other subscriber, named as Public User, who is not in the ACL will get a reject with a roaming not allowed cause 13 or 15.
A set of tools and techniques using data to enhance sales forecast, supply strategy, pricing strategy and all aspects of products&services strategy. CRM is foreseen has a key application of Big Data, where large amounts of past data can really enhance current and future business steering and decision making.
Customer relationship management (CRM) is an approach to managing a company's interaction with current and future customers. The customer relationship management approach tries to analyse data about customers' history with a company, in order to better improve business relationships with customers, specifically focusing on retaining customers, in order to drive sales growth.
One important aspect of the customer relationship management approach is the systems of CRM that compile information from a range of different communication channels, including a company's website, telephone, email, live chat, marketing materials, social media, and more. Through the CRM approach and the systems used to facilitate CRM, businesses learn more about their target audiences and how to best cater to their needs. However, the adoption of the CRM approach may also occasionally lead to favoritism within an audience of consumers, leading to dissatisfaction among customers and defeating the purpose of CRM.
Dynamic Data Authentication. Authentication technology that allows banks to approce transactions at the terminal in a highly secure way.
DI (Dual Interface)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. A protocol used to allocate Internet Protocol (IP) addresses and other configuration parameters to devices in an IP network. See IETF RFC1531, www.ietf.org.
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a standardized network protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for dynamically distributing network configuration parameters, such as IP addresses for interfaces and services. With DHCP, computers request IP addresses and networking parameters automatically from a DHCP server, reducing the need for a network administrator or a user to configure these settings manually.
Humans can own one or several Digital Identiti(es) - also called avatars - to be used to access various digital services For secure services, Digital Identities must be issued by a Certificate Authority (CA) capable to establish a link between the actual user and his/her digital Identities. There is no limit to how many Digital Identities any given user may have.
A digital identity is information on an entity used by computer systems to represent an external agent. That agent may be a person, organisation, application, or device. ISO/IEC 24760-1 defines identity as 'set of attributes related to an entity' Humans can own one or several Digital Identiti(es) - also called avatars - to be used to access various digital services For secure services, Digital Identities must be issued by a Certificate Authority (CA) capable to establish a link between the actual user and his/her digital Identities. There is no limit to how many Digital Identities any given user may have.
An electronic signature created using a public-key algorithm that can be used by the recipient to authenticate the identity of the sender.
A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or documents. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender, that the sender cannot deny having sent the message (authentication and non-repudiation), and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity).
DownLink. The radio link in the direction from the base station to the mobile terminal.
Pertaining to radiocommunication service, a downlink (DL or D/L) is the portion of a feeder link used for the transmission of signals from a space radio station, space radio system or high altitude platform station to an earth station.
Device Management: Management of mobile phone configuration, updates and other managed objects of mobile devices over the entire life-cycle as defined by OMA DM. DM is also used generically to describe all methods and activities associated with mobile device management.
Mobile device management (MDM) is an industry term for the administration of mobile devices, such as smartphones, tablet computers, laptops and desktop computers. MDM is usually implemented with the use of a third party product that has management features for particular vendors of mobile devices.
A technique that tricks a Domain Name Server (DNS server) into believing it has received authentic information when in reality it has not.
DNS spoofing (or DNS cache poisoning) is a computer hacking attack, whereby data is introduced into a Domain Name System (DNS) resolver's cache, causing the name server to return an incorrect IP address, diverting traffic to the attacker's computer (or any other computer).
Any small piece of hardware that plugs into a computer. Most popular form-factor are USB keys or Smart Cards that can get inserted into card readers. Innovative device using optical reader have also been launched onto the market.
A dongle is a small piece of hardware that connects to another device to provide it with additional functionality. In relation to computing, the term is primarily associated with hardware providing a copy protection mechanism for commercial software—in which the dongle must be attached to the system that the software is installed on in order for it to function.
Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access. The LTE radio access technology.
e-UTRA is the air interface of 3GPP's Long Term Evolution (LTE) upgrade path for mobile networks. It is an acronym for evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access, also referred to as the 3GPP work item on the Long Term Evolution (LTE) also known as the Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) in early drafts of the 3GPP LTE specification. E-UTRAN is the initialism of Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network and is the combination of E-UTRA, UEs and EnodeBs.
It is a radio access network which is referred to under the name EUTRAN standard meant to be a replacement of the UMTS and HSDPA/HSUPA technologies specified in 3GPP releases 5 and beyond.
Extended Access Control. A mechanism enhancing the security of ePassports whereby only authorized inspection systems can read biometric data.
Extended Access Control (EAC) is a set of advanced security features for electronic passports that protects and restricts access to sensitive personal data contained in the RFID chip. In contrast to common personal data (like the bearer’s photograph, names, date of birth, etc.) which can be protected by basic mechanisms, more sensitive data (like fingerprints or iris images) must be protected further for preventing unauthorized access and skimming. A chip protected by EAC will allow that this sensitive data is read (through an encrypted channel) only by an authorized passport inspection system.
Accessing banking services via the internet
Buying and selling goods via the internet.
Electronic commerce, commonly written as e-commerce or eCommerce, is the trading or facilitation of trading in products or services using computer networks, such as the Internet. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web for at least one part of the transaction's life cycle, although it may also use other technologies such as e-mail.
A pre-3G digital mobile phone technology allowing improved data transmission rates.
A femtocell is a small, low-power cellular base station, typically designed for use in a home or small business.
A broader term which is more widespread in the industry is small cell, with femtocell as a subset. It is also called femto AccessPoint(AP). It connects to the service provider’s network via broadband (such as DSL or cable); current designs typically support four to eight active mobile phones in a residential setting depending on version number, and eight to 16 active mobile phones in enterprise settings. A femtocell allows service providers to extend service coverage indoors or at the cell edge, especially where access would otherwise be limited or unavailable. Although much attention is focused on WCDMA, the concept is applicable to all standards, including GSM, CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA, WiMAX and LTE solutions.
Use of femtocells benefits both the mobile operator and the consumer. For a mobile operator, the attractions of a femtocell are improvements to both coverage, especially indoors, and capacity. Coverage is improved because femtocells can fill in the gaps and eliminate loss of signal through buildings. Capacity is improved by a reduction in the number of phones attempting to use the main network cells and by the off-load of traffic through the user's network (via the internet) to the operator's infrastructure. Instead of using the operator's private network (microwave links, etc.), the internet is used.
Consumers benefit from improved coverage since they have a base-station inside their building. As a result, the mobile phone (user equipment) achieves the same or higher data rates using less power, thus battery life is longer. They may also get better voice quality. The carrier may also offer more attractive tariffs, e.g., discounted calls from home.
Many operators have launched femtocell service, including Vodafone, SFR, AT&T, Sprint Nextel, Verizon, T-Mobile US, Zain, Mobile TeleSystems, and Orange.
In 3GPP terminology, a Home Node B (HNB) is a 3G femtocell. A Home eNode B (HeNB) is an LTE 4G femtocell.
Federal Information Processing Standard. A US federal government standard that specifies Personal Identity Verification requirements for employees and contractors.
Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access. The brand name for world's first W-CDMA 3G services offered by NTT DoCoMo, the Japanese operator.
Global System for Mobile Communications. A European standard for digital cellular phones that has now been widely adopted throughout the world.
GSM Association. The global association for Mobile phone operators.
Homeland Security Presidential Directive. Orders all US Federal Agencies to issue secure and reliable forms of identification to employees and contractors, with a recommendation in favor of smart card technology.
International Civil Aviation Organization. The United Nations agency which standardizes machine-readable and biometric passports worldwide.
Internet Protocol. A protocol for communicating data accross a network
hence an IP address is a unique computer address using the IP standard.
A means of capturing a user's keystrokes on a computer keyboard, sometimes for malicious purposes.
Long Term Evolution. The standard in advanced mobile network technology, often referred to as 4G.
Machine-to-Machine. Technology enabling communication between machinesfor applications such as smart meters, mobile health solutions, etc.
Mobile Financial Services. Banking services such as money transfer and payment, available via a mobile device.
Machine Identification Module. The equivalent of a SIM with specific features such that it can be used in machines to enable authentificationMMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) a standard way of sending messages that include multimedia content (e.g. photographs) to and from mobile phones.
Mobile Network Operator. A company that provides services for Mobile devices subscribers.
Near-Field Communication. A wireless technology that enables communication over short distances (e.g. 4cm), typically between a mobile device and a reader.
The Initiative for Open Authentication. An industry coalition comprising Gemalto, Citrix, IBM, Verisign and others, that is creating open standards for strong authentication.
Open Mobile Alliance. A body that develops open standards for the mobile phone industry.
Operating System. Software that runs on computers and other smart devices and that manages the way they function.
Over The Air. A method of distributing applications and new software updates which are already in use.
One Time Password. A password that is valid for only one login session or transaction.
Personal Digital Assistant. A mobile device that functions as a personal information manager, often with the ability to connect to the internet.
Personal Identification Number. A secret code required to confirm a user's identity.
Public Key Infrastructure. The software and/or hardware components necessary to enable the effective use of public key encryption technology. Public Key is a systel that uses two different keys (public and private) for encrypting and signing data.
Public Key Infrastructure. Xan identity module for standards other than GSM.
Secure Element. A secure and personalised physical component added to a system to manage users rights and to host secure apps. SE typically consist of a Silicon Chip, a secure Operating System, application software and a secure protocol to communicate to the device. SE can be a removable device (such as UICC or ÂµSD for mobile devices or MIM for M2M connected machines). SE can also be components inside the system.
A subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM) is an integrated circuit chip that is intended to securely store the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number and its related key, which are used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices.
The SIM circuit is part of the function of a Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC) physical smart card, which is usually made of PVC with embedded contacts and semiconductors. "SIM cards" are designed to be transferable between different mobile devices. The first UICC smart cards were the size of credit and bank cards; the development of physically smaller mobile devices has prompted the development of smaller SIM cards, where the size of the plastic carrier is reduced while keeping electrical contacts the same.
A SIM card contains its unique serial number (ICCID), international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number, security authentication and ciphering information, temporary information related to the local network, a list of the services the user has access to, and two passwords: a personal identification number (PIN) for ordinary use, and a personal unblocking code (PUK) for PIN unlocking.
Smartjac GT (SMAGT) series of UICC / SIM cards ranging from standard 3G cards with USIM, ISIM & Milenage support, to advanced multi-application LTE UICC cards with Milenage support, with ready to use test NFC-applications, USIM, ISIM and CSIM.
Smartjac OT series of UICC / SIM cards ranging from 2G SIM cards with XOR support, to advanced multi-application LTE UICC cards with Milenage support, NFC, USIM, ISIM and CSIM.
Short Message Service. A GSM service that sends and receives text messages to and from a mobile phone.
Trusted Execution Environment. A software and hardware dedicated environment embedded within the core device microprocessor to host and execute secure applications. TEE consists of dedicated logic (hardware) within the device microprocessor with its own secure Operating System (software) and secure API to communicate with the Device rich-Operating system. TEE acts like a vault within the microprocessor to ensure a secure provisioning and execution of security sensitive appliactions such as payment. A TSM service is used to install software applications within the TEE environment, as well as performin activation:de-activation of services.
Trusted Services Manager. A third party enabling Mobile Operators, Mass Transit Operators, Banks and businesses to offer combined services seamlessly and securely.
A high capacity smart card used in mobile terminals for GSM, UMTS/3G and now 4G/LTE networks.
The Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC) is the smart card used in mobile terminals in GSM and UMTS networks. The UICC ensures the integrity and security of all kinds of personal data, and it typically holds a few hundred kilobytes. With the advent of more services, the storage space will need to be larger.
In a GSM network, the UICC contains a SIM application and in a UMTS network it is the USIM application. A UICC may contain several applications, making it possible for the same smart card to give access to both GSM and UMTS networks, and also provide storage of a phone book and other applications. It is also possible to access a GSM network using a USIM application and it is possible to access UMTS networks using a SIM application with mobile terminals prepared for this. With the UMTS release 5 a new application, the IP multimedia Services Identity Module (ISIM) is required for services in the IMS. The telephone book is a separate application and not part of either subscriber identity module.
In a cdmaOne/CDMA2000 ("CDMA") network, the UICC contains a CSIM application, in addition to 3GPP USIM and SIM applications. A card with all 3 features is called a removable user identity card, or R-UIM. Thus, the R-UIM card can be inserted into CDMA, GSM, or UMTS handsets, and will work in all three cases.
In 2G networks, the SIM card and SIM application were bound together, so that "SIM card" could mean the physical card, or any physical card with the SIM application. In 3G networks, it is a mistake to speak of a USIM, CSIM, or SIM card, as all three are applications running on a UICC card.
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. One of the 3G mobile telecommunications technologies which is also being developed into a 4G technology.
Universal Serial Bus. A standard input/output bus that supports very high transmission rates.
Universal Subscriber Identity Module. A SIM with adbanced software that ensures continuity when migrating to 3G services.
Virtual Private Network. A private network often used within a company or group of companies to communicate confidentially over a public network.
Wideband Code Division Multiple Access. A 3G technology for wireless systems based on CDMA technology.